swift-style-guide

转自 https://github.com/Artwalk/swift-style-guide

##原版 戳这里

哪里不对或者不准确的,若能指出(我把原文贴上来了,用来对照 2015-12-13)
感激不尽~~~

如果没能及时更新,可能比较忙,或者比较懒 →_→
可以 Email 或 翻译后,pull request


#Swift 编码规范

A guide to our Swift style and conventions.

This is an attempt to encourage patterns that accomplish the following goals (in
rough priority order):

  1. Increased rigor, and decreased likelihood of programmer error
  2. Increased clarity of intent
  3. Reduced verbosity
  4. Fewer debates about aesthetics

If you have suggestions, please see our contribution guidelines,
then open a pull request. :zap:

本文尝试做到以下几点 (大概的先后顺序):

  1. 增进精确,减少程序员犯错的可能
  2. 明确意图
  3. 减少冗余
  4. 少量关于美的讨论

如果你有什么建议,请看我们的 贡献导引,然后开个 pull request. :zap:


Whitespace

  • Tabs, not spaces.
  • End files with a newline.
  • Make liberal use of vertical whitespace to divide code into logical chunks.
  • Don’t leave trailing whitespace.
    • Not even leading indentation on blank lines.

留空白

  • 用 Tabs,而非 空格
  • 文件结束时留一空行
  • 用足够的空行把代码分割成合理的块
  • 不要在一行结尾留下空白
    • 千万别在空行留下缩进

Prefer let-bindings over var-bindings wherever possible

能用 let 尽量用 let 而不是 var

Use let foo = … over var foo = … wherever possible (and when in doubt). Only use var if you absolutely have to (i.e. you know that the value might change, e.g. when using the weak storage modifier).

Rationale: The intent and meaning of both keywords is clear, but let-by-default results in safer and clearer code.

尽可能的用 let foo = ... 而不是 var foo = ... (并且包括你疑惑的时候)。万不得已的时候,再用 var (就是说:你 知道 这个值会改变,比如:有 weak 修饰的存储变量)。

理由: 这俩关键字 无论意图还是意义 都很清楚了,但是 let 可以产生安全清晰的代码。

A let-binding guarantees and clearly signals to the programmer that its value will never change. Subsequent code can thus make stronger assumptions about its usage.

It becomes easier to reason about code. Had you used var while still making the assumption that the value never changed, you would have to manually check that.

Accordingly, whenever you see a var identifier being used, assume that it will change and ask yourself why.

let-有保障 并且它的值的永远不会变对程序猿也是个 清晰的标记,对于它的用法,之后的代码可以做个强而有力的推断。

猜测代码更容易了。不然一旦你用了 var,还要去推测值会不会变,这时候你就不得不人肉去检查。

这样,无论何时你看到 var,就假设它会变,并问自己为啥。

Return and break early

尽早地 Return 或者 break

When you have to meet certain criteria to continue execution, try to exit early. So, instead of this:

当你遇到某些操作需要通过条件判断去执行,应当尽早地退出判断条件:你不应该用下面这种写法

if n.isNumber {
    // Use n here
} else {
    return
}

use this:

guard n.isNumber else {
    return
}
// Use n here

You can also do it with if statement, but using guard is prefered, because guard statement without return, break or continue produces a compile-time error, so exit is guaranteed.

或者你也可以用 if 声明,但是我们推荐你使用 guard

理由: 你一但声明 guard 编译器会强制要求你和 return, break 或者 continue 一起搭配使用,否则会产生一个编译时的错误。

Avoid Using Force-Unwrapping of Optionals

避免对 可选类型 强解包

If you have an identifier foo of type FooType? or FooType!, don’t force-unwrap it to get to the underlying value (foo!) if possible.

如果你有个 FooType?FooType!foo,尽量不要强行展开它以得到基本类型(foo!)。

Instead, prefer this:

if let foo = foo {
    // Use unwrapped `foo` value in here
} else {
    // If appropriate, handle the case where the optional is nil
}

Alternatively, you might want to use Swift’s Optional Chaining in some of these cases, such as:

或者使用可选链,比如:

// Call the function if `foo` is not nil. If `foo` is nil, ignore we ever tried to make the call
foo?.callSomethingIfFooIsNotNil()

Rationale: Explicit if let-binding of optionals results in safer code. Force unwrapping is more prone to lead to runtime crashes.

理由: if let 绑定可选类型产生了更安全的代码,强行展开很可能导致运行时崩溃。

Avoid Using Implicitly Unwrapped Optionals

避免毫无保留地展开可选类型

Where possible, use let foo: FooType? instead of let foo: FooType! if foo may be nil (Note that in general, ? can be used instead of !).

Rationale: Explicit optionals result in safer code. Implicitly unwrapped optionals have the potential of crashing at runtime.

如果 foo 可能为 nil ,尽可能的用 let foo: FooType? 代替 let foo: FooType!(注意:一般情况下,?可以代替!

理由: 明确的可选类型产生了更安全的代码。无保留地展开可选类型也会挂。

Prefer implicit getters on read-only properties and subscripts

对于只读属性的 propertiessubscripts,选用隐式的 getters 方法

When possible, omit the get keyword on read-only computed properties and
read-only subscripts.

如果可以,省略只读属性的 propertiessubscriptsget 关键字

So, write these:

var myGreatProperty: Int {
    return 4
}

subscript(index: Int) -> T {
    return objects[index]
}

… not these:

var myGreatProperty: Int {
    get {
        return 4
    }
}

subscript(index: Int) -> T {
    get {
        return objects[index]
    }
}

Rationale: The intent and meaning of the first version is clear, and results in less code.

理由: 第一个版本的代码意图已经很清楚了,并且用了更少的代码

Always specify access control explicitly for top-level definitions

对于顶级定义,永远明确的列出权限控制

Top-level functions, types, and variables should always have explicit access control specifiers:

顶级函数,类型和变量,永远应该有着详尽的权限控制说明符

public var whoopsGlobalState: Int
internal struct TheFez {}
private func doTheThings(things: [Thing]) {}

However, definitions within those can leave access control implicit, where appropriate:

当然,这样也是恰当的,因为用了隐式权限控制

internal struct TheFez {
    var owner: Person = Joshaber()
}

Rationale: It’s rarely appropriate for top-level definitions to be specifically internal, and being explicit ensures that careful thought goes into that decision. Within a definition, reusing the same access control specifier is just duplicative, and the default is usually reasonable.

理由: 顶级定义指定为 internal很少有恰当的,要明确的确保经过了仔细的判断。有了一个定义,重用同样的权限控制说明符就显得重复,所以默认的通常是合理的。

When specifying a type, always associate the colon with the identifier

当指定一个类型时,把 冒号和标识符 连在一起

When specifying the type of an identifier, always put the colon immediately
after the identifier, followed by a space and then the type name.

当指定标示符的类型时,冒号要紧跟着标示符,然后空一格再写类型

class SmallBatchSustainableFairtrade: Coffee { ... }

let timeToCoffee: NSTimeInterval = 2

func makeCoffee(type: CoffeeType) -> Coffee { ... }

Rationale: The type specifier is saying something about the identifier so
it should be positioned with it.

理由: 类型区分号是对于 identifier 来说的,所以要跟它连在一起。

Also, when specifying the type of a dictionary, always put the colon immediately
after the key type, followed by a space and then the value type.

Only explicitly refer to self when required

需要时才写上 self

When accessing properties or methods on self, leave the reference to self implicit by default:

当调用 selfpropertiesmethods 时,self 用默认的隐式引用:

private class History {
    var events: [Event]

    func rewrite() {
        events = []
    }
}

Only include the explicit keyword when required by the language—for example, in a closure, or when parameter names conflict:

必要的时候再加上self, 比如在闭包里,或者 参数名冲突了:

extension History {
    init(events: [Event]) {
        self.events = events
    }

    var whenVictorious: () -> () {
        return {
            self.rewrite()
        }
    }
}

Rationale: This makes the capturing semantics of self stand out more in closures, and avoids verbosity elsewhere.

原因: 在闭包里用self更加凸显它的语义,并且避免了别处的冗长

Prefer structs over classes

首选 structs 而非 classes

Unless you require functionality that can only be provided by a class (like identity or deinitializers), implement a struct instead.

Note that inheritance is (by itself) usually not a good reason to use classes, because polymorphism can be provided by protocols, and implementation reuse can be provided through composition.

For example, this class hierarchy:

除非你需要 class 才能提供的功能(比如 identitydeinitializers),不然就用 struct

要注意到继承通常是用 类 的好理由,因为 多态 可以通过 协议 实现,重用 可以通过 组合 实现。

比如,这个类的分级

class Vehicle {
    let numberOfWheels: Int

    init(numberOfWheels: Int) {
        self.numberOfWheels = numberOfWheels
    }

    func maximumTotalTirePressure(pressurePerWheel: Float) -> Float {
        return pressurePerWheel * Float(numberOfWheels)
    }
}

class Bicycle: Vehicle {
    init() {
        super.init(numberOfWheels: 2)
    }
}

class Car: Vehicle {
    init() {
        super.init(numberOfWheels: 4)
    }
}

could be refactored into these definitions:

可以重构成酱紫:

protocol Vehicle {
    var numberOfWheels: Int { get }
}

func maximumTotalTirePressure(vehicle: Vehicle, pressurePerWheel: Float) -> Float {
    return pressurePerWheel * Float(vehicle.numberOfWheels)
}

struct Bicycle: Vehicle {
    let numberOfWheels = 2
}

struct Car: Vehicle {
    let numberOfWheels = 4
}

Rationale: Value types are simpler, easier to reason about, and behave as expected with the let keyword.

理由: 值的类型更简单,容易辨别,并且通过let关键字可猜测行为。

Make classes final by default

默认 classesfinal

Classes should start as final, and only be changed to allow subclassing if a valid need for inheritance has been identified. Even in that case, as many definitions as possible within the class should be final as well, following the same rules.

Rationale: Composition is usually preferable to inheritance, and opting _in_ to inheritance hopefully means that more thought will be put into the decision.

Classes 应该作为基类,只能被子类已识别正当的继承(and only be changed to allow subclassing if a valid need for inheritance has been identified.)。即使这种例子,根据同样的规则,类中的定义也要尽可能的用 final 标注上

理由: 组合通常比继承更合适,而且不用 继承意味着考虑的更多(and opting in to inheritance hopefully means that more thought will be put into the decision.)。

Omit type parameters where possible

能不写类型参数的就别写了

Methods of parameterized types can omit type parameters on the receiving type when they’re identical to the receiver’s. For example:

参数化类型的方法可以省略接收者的类型参数,当他们对接收者来说一样时。比如:

struct Composite<T> {
    …
    func compose(other: Composite<T>) -> Composite<T> {
        return Composite<T>(self, other)
    }
}

could be rendered as:

struct Composite<T> {
    …
    func compose(other: Composite) -> Composite {
        return Composite(self, other)
    }
}

Rationale: Omitting redundant type parameters clarifies the intent, and makes it obvious by contrast when the returned type takes different type parameters.

理由: 省略多余的类型参数让意图更清晰,并且通过对比,让返回值为不同的类型参数的情况也清楚了很多。

Use whitespace around operator definitions

操作定义符 两边留空格

Use whitespace around operators when defining them. Instead of:

当定义操作定义符 时,两边留空格。不要酱紫:

func <|(lhs: Int, rhs: Int) -> Int
func <|<<A>(lhs: A, rhs: A) -> A

write:

func <| (lhs: Int, rhs: Int) -> Int
func <|< <A>(lhs: A, rhs: A) -> A

Rationale: Operators consist of punctuation characters, which can make them difficult to read when immediately followed by the punctuation for a type or value parameter list. Adding whitespace separates the two more clearly.

理由: 操作符 由 标点字符组成,当立即连着 类型或者参数值,会让代码非常难读。加上空格分开他们就清晰了

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